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Greenland’s massive expanse of ice and snow stretches over 800,000 sq miles (about 1.3 million sq km), with very little of it easily reachable over land. To survey its varied topography, continually under threat from climate change, researchers at NASA routinely conduct research flights over Greenland’s icy coasts and interiors.

Here are some stunning shots from them:

An aerial view of a moulin, a hole in a glacier that drains outs melted ice, 2015.
NASA Goddard
Streams of flowing meltwater on top of an ice sheet, 2015.
The Gyldenlove glacier
NASA/GSFC/Michael Studinger
The Gyldenlove glacier, 2011.
A frozen pond
NASA Goddard
A frozen meltwater lake along the northeast Greenland coast, 2012
Aerial view of a fjord
NASA/John Sonntag
A fjord in southern Greenland, in 2017.
Glacier calving
NASA/Maria-Jose Viñas
The heart-shaped calving front of a glacier in northwest Greenland, 2017.
The Jakobshavn Glacier
NASA Goddard
An aerial view of the Jakobshavn Glacier, 2012.
NASA/GSFC/Michael Studinger
A fjord around a small ice cap called Sukkertoppen Isflade, 2012.
Saunders Island
NASA Goddard
Saunders Island and Wolstenholme Fjord with Kap Atholl in the background, 2013.
Greenland mountains
NASA Goddard
Mountain ridges showing the distinctive geology of the Geikie Plateau region in eastern Greenland, 2012.
Heimdal glacier
NASA Goddard
Heimdal glacier in southern Greenland, 2015.