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All 300-plus languages spoken in American homes, and the number of people who speak them

Paola Garcia reads a book with her three-year-old daughter Emily at Action for Boston Community Development's (ABCD) Head Start program in the Roslindale neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts March 5, 2013. Garcia attends classes to learn English as a second language while her daughter attends Head Start, which provides early learning for children.
Reuters/Brian Snyder
Living in America, learning English.
By Nikhil Sonnad
Published Last updated This article is more than 2 years old.

This item has been corrected.

Every year, the US Census Bureau releases data on the languages spoken in American homes. Usually it groups the languages in 39 major categories. Now it has released much more detailed figures, which show that Americans speak not 39, but more than 320 distinct languages.

The bureau collected the data from 2009 to 2013 as part of the American Community Survey, which asks Americans all kinds of questions to create highly granular estimates on various demographic indicators. The new data estimate that more than 60 million Americans speak a language other than English at home.

Included are 150 Native American languages, as well as relatively obscure ones like Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Mongolian, and many others. The data estimate that Sudanese, for example, is spoken at home by only 35 Americans. Patwin, spoken by a group of Americans native to northern California, it estimates at just four speakers.

The data also show which cities have the most linguistic diversity. New York is home to 192 distinct languages; Los Angeles, 185.

The full list of the hundreds of languages spoken in American homes is included below—minus 32 languages for which the bureau withheld the raw number of speakers, likely out of concern that the number would be small enough to let anyone de-anonymize the data.

Spanish, spoken at home by more than 37 million Americans, is far and away the largest non-English language used in the US. It’s followed by “Chinese,” which probably mostly refers to Mandarin (even though that has its own category, confusingly enough).

Spanish
37,458,470
Chinese
1,867,485
Tagalog
1,613,346
Vietnamese
1,399,936
French
1,253,560
Korean
1,117,343
German
1,063,275
Arabic
924,374
Russian
879,434
French Creole
739,725
Italian
708,966
Portuguese
692,500
Hindi
643,337
Polish
580,153
Mandarin
487,250
Cantonese
458,840
Japanese
449,475
Urdu
397,502
Persian
391,113
Gujarati
373,253
Kru, Ibo, Yoruba
322,255
Greek
304,932
Bengali
257,740
Panjabi
253,740
Telugu
247,760
Armenian
237,840
Hmong
214,943
Hebrew
212,747
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian
212,167
Amharic
195,260
Tamil
190,685
Navajo
166,826
Yiddish
155,582
Romanian
154,625
Thai
152,649
Laotian
152,647
Ukrainian
152,325
Malayalam
146,310
Serbocroatian
144,675
Dutch
141,580
Albanian
133,870
Pennsylvania Dutch
133,190
Cushite
122,445
Turkish
116,515
Nepali
94,220
Swahili
88,685
Hungarian
86,406
Ilocano
85,755
Formosan
77,675
Syriac
74,725
Marathi
73,630
Serbian
70,260
Indonesian
67,410
Samoan
64,135
Burmese
62,645
India, not classified
61,385
Bulgarian
57,785
Bantu
56,685
Swedish
55,735
Croatian
53,040
Kannada
48,620
Czech
47,385
Lithuanian
39,790
Norwegian
39,430
Patois
32,900
Tongan
31,440
Fulani
30,475
Karen
30,185
Mande
29,835
Bisayan
29,800
Danish
28,285
Slovak
27,930
Sinhalese
26,745
Hawaiian
26,205
Finnish
25,805
Afrikaans
23,010
Macedonian
22,885
Pashto
22,760
Jamaican Creole
21,965
Cajun
21,285
Irish Gaelic
20,590
Chamorro
19,780
Yupik
19,750
Mien
19,010
Marshallese
18,485
Dakota
17,855
Kurdish
17,020
Tibetan
16,730
Latvian
16,035
Sebuano
15,700
Malay
14,580
Apache
13,445
Keres
13,190
Pakistan, not classified
12,605
African
12,320
Cherokee
11,465
Krio
10,560
Mongolian
10,180
Ojibwa
9,735
Choctaw
9,635
Zuni
9,615
Caucasian
8,980
Sindhi
8,965
Uighur
8,905
Trukese
8,790
Chadic
8,565
Sudanic
8,510
Micronesian
7,830
Mayan languages
7,650
American Indian
7,110
Pima
6,990
Nilotic
6,890
Uncodable
6,760
Inupik
6,740
Slovene
6,370
Hopi
6,075
Estonian
6,035
Fijian
5,755
Efik
5,620
Pampangan
5,620
Oriya
5,385
Oto – Manguen
5,100
Icelandic
4,865
Tewa
4,620
Muskogee
4,465
Pidgin
4,445
Crow
4,160
Palau
4,140
Ponapean
3,525
Arawakian
3,150
Berber
2,940
Wu
2,670
Catalonian
2,325
Pangasinan
2,265
Welsh
2,235
Tiwa
2,180
Azerbaijani
2,085
Munda
2,030
Shoshoni
2,000
Mohawk
1,945
Towa
1,925
Cheyenne
1,920
Ute
1,895
Basque
1,860
Bielorussian
1,805
Kashmiri
1,775
Winnebago
1,720
Scottic Gaelic
1,635
Romany
1,555
Kazakh
1,480
Gondi
1,470
Fuchow
1,450
Blackfoot
1,450
Hakka
1,350
Salish
1,350
Gur
1,310
Melanesian
1,305
Paiute
1,305
Assamese
1,305
Quechua
1,300
Sahaptian
1,295
Kuchin
1,285
Nilo-Hamitic
1,275
Eskimo
1,270
Athapascan
1,265
Tlingit
1,240
Kusaiean
1,165
Dravidian
1,150
Chibchan
1,095
St Lawrence Island Yupik
1,070
Arapaho
1,065
Cham
1,050
Algonquian
1,030
Seneca
1,015
Comanche
1,015
Aleut
995
Potawatomi
985
Papia Mentae
970
Ottawa
965
Carolinian
945
Cree
870
Passamaquoddy
845
Kickapoo
820
Nez Perce
805
Balinese
795
Oneida
770
Kiowa
750
Aztecan
720
Malagasy
720
Yapese
720
Mbum (and related)
715
Rajasthani
715
Bikol
695
Yaqui
640
Hidatsa
625
Bihari
595
Kirghiz
550
Paleo-siberian
530
Kachin
520
Frisian
510
Jicarilla
510
Mokilese
500
Luxembourgian
500
Javanese
495
Pomo
485
Omaha
480
Maori
460
Karok
445
Tadzhik
435
Polynesian
435
Karachay
420
Osage
420
Menomini
405
Fox
400
Gullah
385
Alabama
370
Hawaiian Pidgin
365
Delta River Yuman
365
Koasati
365
San Carlos
360
Mono
355
Yurok
350
Nubian
305
Ponca
305
Walapai
300
Diegueno
295
Yuma
290
Mikasuki
290
Nilo-Saharan
270
Upper Chinook
270
Shawnee
255
Yavapai
245
Tupi-Guarani
245
Delaware
240
Tuscarora
240
Tungus
235
Okanogan
230
Foothill North Yokuts
225
Washo
215
Puget Sound Salish
215
Kutenai
215
Nukuoro
210
Mapuche
210
Micmac
205
Klamath
205
Turkmen
205
Mohave
200
Mountain Maidu
200
Balochi
185
Haida
180
Kwakiutl
175
French Cree
170
Gilbertese
170
Iroquois
165
Yuchi
165
Chasta Costa
165
Arikara
155
Picuris
155
Chiricahua
155
Sierra Miwok
155
Makah
150
Clallam
145
Quinault
145
Havasupai
145
Woleai-Ulithi
140
Wintun
135
Marquesan
135
Ladino
130
Tokelauan
125
Miami
115
Caddo
115
Chiwere
105
Rarotongan
95
Pawnee
95
Coeur d’Alene
95
Misumalpan
95
Burushaski
95
Tanaina
90
Saharan
80
Penobscot
75
Mandan
75
Luiseno
75
Onondaga
75
Pacific Gulf Yupik
70
Hupa
70
Chetemacha
65
Koyukon
65
Tarascan
60
Cahuilla
60
Han
60
Sonoran
60
Abnaki
55
Atsina
55
Santiam
55
Khoisan
55
Tonkawa
50
Kan, Hsiang
50
Ossete
50
Ahtena
45
Chinook Jargon
45
Ulithean
40
Tsimshian
40
Sundanese
35
Saramacca
35
Cocomaricopa
35
Faroese
30
Kalispel
30
Northern Paiute
30
Wyandot
30
Other Athapascan-Eyak
25
Other Uralic languages
20
Cupeno
20
Kansa
20
Ingalit
15
Minangkabau
15
Siuslaw
10
Upper Chehalis
4
Patwin
4

The four Patwin speakers thank you for making it all the way to the end of this list.

Correction: An earlier version of the table in this post omitted several languages which the US Census Bureau defines as belonging to their own language sub-groups. We apologize for the error.

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