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Paola Garcia reads a book with her three-year-old daughter Emily at Action for Boston Community Development's (ABCD) Head Start program in the Roslindale neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts March 5, 2013. Garcia attends classes to learn English as a second language while her daughter attends Head Start, which provides early learning for children.
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All 300-plus languages spoken in American homes, and the number of people who speak them

Nikhil Sonnad
By Nikhil Sonnad

Reporter

This item has been corrected.

Every year, the US Census Bureau releases data on the languages spoken in American homes. Usually it groups the languages in 39 major categories. Now it has released much more detailed figures, which show that Americans speak not 39, but more than 320 distinct languages.

The bureau collected the data from 2009 to 2013 as part of the American Community Survey, which asks Americans all kinds of questions to create highly granular estimates on various demographic indicators. The new data estimate that more than 60 million Americans speak a language other than English at home.

Included are 150 Native American languages, as well as relatively obscure ones like Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Mongolian, and many others. The data estimate that Sudanese, for example, is spoken at home by only 35 Americans. Patwin, spoken by a group of Americans native to northern California, it estimates at just four speakers.

The data also show which cities have the most linguistic diversity. New York is home to 192 distinct languages; Los Angeles, 185.

The full list of the hundreds of languages spoken in American homes is included below—minus 32 languages for which the bureau withheld the raw number of speakers, likely out of concern that the number would be small enough to let anyone de-anonymize the data.

Spanish, spoken at home by more than 37 million Americans, is far and away the largest non-English language used in the US. It’s followed by “Chinese,” which probably mostly refers to Mandarin (even though that has its own category, confusingly enough).

LanguageSpeakers
Spanish37,458,470
Chinese1,867,485
Tagalog1,613,346
Vietnamese1,399,936
French1,253,560
Korean1,117,343
German1,063,275
Arabic924,374
Russian879,434
French Creole739,725
Italian708,966
Portuguese692,500
Hindi643,337
Polish580,153
Mandarin487,250
Cantonese458,840
Japanese449,475
Urdu397,502
Persian391,113
Gujarati373,253
Kru, Ibo, Yoruba322,255
Greek304,932
Bengali257,740
Panjabi253,740
Telugu247,760
Armenian237,840
Hmong214,943
Hebrew212,747
Mon-Khmer, Cambodian212,167
Amharic195,260
Tamil190,685
Navajo166,826
Yiddish155,582
Romanian154,625
Thai152,649
Laotian152,647
Ukrainian152,325
Malayalam146,310
Serbocroatian144,675
Dutch141,580
Albanian133,870
Pennsylvania Dutch133,190
Cushite122,445
Turkish116,515
Nepali94,220
Swahili88,685
Hungarian86,406
Ilocano85,755
Formosan77,675
Syriac74,725
Marathi73,630
Serbian70,260
Indonesian67,410
Samoan64,135
Burmese62,645
India, not classified61,385
Bulgarian57,785
Bantu56,685
Swedish55,735
Croatian53,040
Kannada48,620
Czech47,385
Lithuanian39,790
Norwegian39,430
Patois32,900
Tongan31,440
Fulani30,475
Karen30,185
Mande29,835
Bisayan29,800
Danish28,285
Slovak27,930
Sinhalese26,745
Hawaiian26,205
Finnish25,805
Afrikaans23,010
Macedonian22,885
Pashto22,760
Jamaican Creole21,965
Cajun21,285
Irish Gaelic20,590
Chamorro19,780
Yupik19,750
Mien19,010
Marshallese18,485
Dakota17,855
Kurdish17,020
Tibetan16,730
Latvian16,035
Sebuano15,700
Malay14,580
Apache13,445
Keres13,190
Pakistan, not classified12,605
African12,320
Cherokee11,465
Krio10,560
Mongolian10,180
Ojibwa9,735
Choctaw9,635
Zuni9,615
Caucasian8,980
Sindhi8,965
Uighur8,905
Trukese8,790
Chadic8,565
Sudanic8,510
Micronesian7,830
Mayan languages7,650
American Indian7,110
Pima6,990
Nilotic6,890
Uncodable6,760
Inupik6,740
Slovene6,370
Hopi6,075
Estonian6,035
Fijian5,755
Efik5,620
Pampangan5,620
Oriya5,385
Oto – Manguen5,100
Icelandic4,865
Tewa4,620
Muskogee4,465
Pidgin4,445
Crow4,160
Palau4,140
Ponapean3,525
Arawakian3,150
Berber2,940
Wu2,670
Catalonian2,325
Pangasinan2,265
Welsh2,235
Tiwa2,180
Azerbaijani2,085
Munda2,030
Shoshoni2,000
Mohawk1,945
Towa1,925
Cheyenne1,920
Ute1,895
Basque1,860
Bielorussian1,805
Kashmiri1,775
Winnebago1,720
Scottic Gaelic1,635
Romany1,555
Kazakh1,480
Gondi1,470
Fuchow1,450
Blackfoot1,450
Hakka1,350
Salish1,350
Gur1,310
Melanesian1,305
Paiute1,305
Assamese1,305
Quechua1,300
Sahaptian1,295
Kuchin1,285
Nilo-Hamitic1,275
Eskimo1,270
Athapascan1,265
Tlingit1,240
Kusaiean1,165
Dravidian1,150
Chibchan1,095
St Lawrence Island Yupik1,070
Arapaho1,065
Cham1,050
Algonquian1,030
Seneca1,015
Comanche1,015
Aleut995
Potawatomi985
Papia Mentae970
Ottawa965
Carolinian945
Cree870
Passamaquoddy845
Kickapoo820
Nez Perce805
Balinese795
Oneida770
Kiowa750
Aztecan720
Malagasy720
Yapese720
Mbum (and related)715
Rajasthani715
Bikol695
Yaqui640
Hidatsa625
Bihari595
Kirghiz550
Paleo-siberian530
Kachin520
Frisian510
Jicarilla510
Mokilese500
Luxembourgian500
Javanese495
Pomo485
Omaha480
Maori460
Karok445
Tadzhik435
Polynesian435
Karachay420
Osage420
Menomini405
Fox400
Gullah385
Alabama370
Hawaiian Pidgin365
Delta River Yuman365
Koasati365
San Carlos360
Mono355
Yurok350
Nubian305
Ponca305
Walapai300
Diegueno295
Yuma290
Mikasuki290
Nilo-Saharan270
Upper Chinook270
Shawnee255
Yavapai245
Tupi-Guarani245
Delaware240
Tuscarora240
Tungus235
Okanogan230
Foothill North Yokuts225
Washo215
Puget Sound Salish215
Kutenai215
Nukuoro210
Mapuche210
Micmac205
Klamath205
Turkmen205
Mohave200
Mountain Maidu200
Balochi185
Haida180
Kwakiutl175
French Cree170
Gilbertese170
Iroquois165
Yuchi165
Chasta Costa165
Arikara155
Picuris155
Chiricahua155
Sierra Miwok155
Makah150
Clallam145
Quinault145
Havasupai145
Woleai-Ulithi140
Wintun135
Marquesan135
Ladino130
Tokelauan125
Miami115
Caddo115
Chiwere105
Rarotongan95
Pawnee95
Coeur d’Alene95
Misumalpan95
Burushaski95
Tanaina90
Saharan80
Penobscot75
Mandan75
Luiseno75
Onondaga75
Pacific Gulf Yupik70
Hupa70
Chetemacha65
Koyukon65
Tarascan60
Cahuilla60
Han60
Sonoran60
Abnaki55
Atsina55
Santiam55
Khoisan55
Tonkawa50
Kan, Hsiang50
Ossete50
Ahtena45
Chinook Jargon45
Ulithean40
Tsimshian40
Sundanese35
Saramacca35
Cocomaricopa35
Faroese30
Kalispel30
Northern Paiute30
Wyandot30
Other Athapascan-Eyak25
Other Uralic languages20
Cupeno20
Kansa20
Ingalit15
Minangkabau15
Siuslaw10
Upper Chehalis4
Patwin4

The four Patwin speakers thank you for making it all the way to the end of this list.

Correction: An earlier version of the table in this post omitted several languages which the US Census Bureau defines as belonging to their own language sub-groups. We apologize for the error.

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