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Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart lead the way to the US Capitol in 1947.
BOGEY GOES TO WASHINGTON

That time when “the Hollywood elite” took on Washington, 70 years ago

By Jenni Avins

Sunday night at the Oscars, we’ll likely see writers, actors, and directors use their time at the podium to lambast the policies of US president Donald Trump, as they have at other awards shows.

Trump himself will reportedly be too busy hosting a black-tie event in Washington, DC to watch the US movie industry’s biggest party—or, presumably, to tweet barbed commentary about the proceedings, as he has in the past.

Still, he may have a hard time resisting provocations and personal attacks. After the actress Meryl Streep delivered a devastating review of the president’s “performance” in her acceptance speech for her lifetime achievement award at the Golden Globes, Trump famously took to Twitter to call Streep “over-rated,” and “a Hillary flunky who lost big.”

Trump and his supporters have often lumped Hollywood into an ”elite” category—along with the media—that are hopelessly out of touch with the rest of the country and “killing America.”

More recently, actor George Clooney shot the “Hollywood elitist” label back at Trump and his chief strategist Steve Bannon, pointing out that the former has more than a $100,000 in a Screen Actors Guild pension fund, and the latter is a “failed film writer” who made a fortune on Seinfeld reruns.

While some may dismiss this face-off between Washington and Hollywood as frivolity, the “Hollywood elite” have a historical precedent for being cast as a threatening “other”—and for standing up to fear-mongering and xenophobia in the White House.

In 1947, Hollywood became a target for the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), which was established in 1938 to investigate the influence of citizens suspected of Communist ties, launching what the journalist and author Edward Jay Epstein called a “full-scale cultural inquisition.”

These alleged subversives—writers, actors, studio executives, and directors among them—were subpoenaed and asked to identify Communists in the industry. “Friendly witnesses,” including Walt Disney and then-Screen Actors Guild president Ronald Reagan, named names. Others who refused to testify, including “the Hollywood Ten,” were forced to choose between imprisonment and exile, and were blacklisted in Hollywood.

In October of 1947, a delegation of 25 of Hollywood’s power players including the Hollywood power couple Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, Danny Kaye, Gene Kelly, John Huston, and Ira Gershwin boarded a TWA charter flight to Washington, DC. There, they represented the “Committee for the first Amendment,” a self-described “non-political organization campaigning only for honesty, fairness, and the accepted rights of any American citizen.”

There were plenty of photo ops as the celebrities obtained their tickets, boarded the flight, marched to the capitol, and sat through the hearings, smoking sardonically. The Committee for the First Amendment also recorded a radio broadcast entitled “Hollywood Fights Back,” in which stars such as (Trump favorite) Judy Garland expressed their dismay at HUAC’s investigation of the film industry.

“We’re show business yes,” said the unmistakeable voice of The Wizard of Oz‘s Dorothy. ”But we’re also American citizens. It’s one thing if someone says we’re not good actors. That hurts, but we can take that. It’s something else again to say we’re not good Americans. We resent that!”

While Bogart later renounced Communism and his trip to Washington as “ill-advised, even foolish,” he also said in the same statement: ”I went to Washington because I thought fellow Americans were being deprived of their Constitutional Rights, and for that that reason alone.”

Bacall too, later wondered about the trip’s lasting impact, but said, 30 years later: “It helped those of us at the time who wanted to fight for what we thought was right and against what we knew was wrong. And we made a noise — in Hollywood, a community which should be courageous but which is surprisingly timid and easily intimidated.”

Whether the war of words between Trump and Hollywood escalates remains to be seen. But here’s what it looked like 70 years ago when stars took their fight to the doorstep of the country’s capital:

AP Photo
A group of actors flying to Washington from Los Angeles October 26, 1947 to protest the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings. Left to right are: June Havoc, Marsha Hunt, Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Evelyn Keyes, Paul Henreid. At the rear is Danny Kaye.
Bettmann/Getty
The actors on their return trip to Hollywood. They are (left to right, front row), Richard Conte, Lauren Bacall, and Humphrey Bogart; (second row), Paul Henreid, June Havoc, and Geraldine Brooks; (third row), Marsha Hunt and Evelyn Keyes; (fourth row), Jane Wyatt and Danny Kaye; (fifth row), Mrs. Stirling Hayden and Gene Kelly. Stirling Hayden is directly back of Kelly. October 29, 1947.
AP Photo
A group of Hollywood stars pose against the Capitol dome as they arrive for a session of the House Un-American Activities Committee in Washington, D.C., Oct. 27, 1947. From left are, Jules Buell, Marsha Hunt, David Hopkins, Richard Conte, Ralph Alswang, June Havoc, John Huston, Sterling Hayden, back, Humphrey Bogart, Paul Henreid, Lauren Bacall, Joseph Sistrom, Evelyn Keyes, Danny Kaye, Sheppard Strudwick, Jane Wyatt, Geraldine Brooks, Ira Gershwin and Larry Adler.
AP Photo
Filling the back rows of seats a delegation of Hollywood personalities listens to session of the House Un-American Activities Committee hearing on Oct. 27, 1947 into communist Penetration of the film industry. Third row (Starting third from left) Larry Adler; Sheridan Gibney; Robert Presnell, Jr. and Marsha Hunt. Fourth row (starting fifth from left), Sheppard Strudwick; Baul Henreid Jane Wyatt; Evelyn Keyes; June Havoc; Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall. Fifth row (starting sixth from left), Sterling Hayden; Mrs. Hayden; Ernest Pascal; Joseph Sistrom; Ralph Alswang; unidentified man; Robert Ardroy; Richard Conte and Geraldine Brooks.
Bettmann/Getty
Paul Henried, Lauren Bacall, Danny Kaye and Humphrey Bogart (left to right) are pictured on their arrival by plane to protest the House Un-American Activities Committee’s method of probing alleged Communism in Hollywood.