Manafort will be sentenced next week on two counts related to special counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election. Each carry a maximum punishment of five years.

Among the American defendants who were recently sentenced in state and local courts to more time than Manafort:

In July, Ellis himself expressed regret when he sentenced a 37-year-old white man to a mandatory minimum of 40 years for dealing methamphetamine, his first serious crime. “I think that’s excessive,” Ellis said, as reported by the Washington Post. “The only thing I can do is express my displeasure. . . . I chafe a bit at that, but I follow the law.”

Research shows disparities in sentencing are ubiquitous. Overall, black male offenders receive “sentences on average 19.1% longer than similarly situated white male offenders,” a 2017 report from the US Sentencing Commission, a bipartisan, independent agency within the federal judicial branch, notes.

Manafort’s sentencing is latest in a series of jarring moments during Trump’s presidency that have shaken some Americans’ confidence in government institutions. The Supreme Court’s decision to overlook Trump’s anti-Muslim tweets as the court backed his ban on immigrants from five Muslim-majority countries last June was among them. The confirmation of Brett Kavanaugh for the top court, despite the temperament he exhibited during Senate hearings on his nomination by Trump stands as another.

Amy Klobuchar, the Minnesota senator who is running for the Democratic nomination for president, said Ellis’ sentence for Manafort is indicative of “two systems of justice.”

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, the New York city congresswoman, called it a sign the system is broken.

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