The big salary increases among Black workers after the bans suggest the bargaining process is keeping their wages lower than those of white workers, the report’s authors noted. One of them pointed to the study’s results as evidence of structural racism.

African Americans and women are paid significantly less than white men, regardless of their experience, education, and overall productivity. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the median weekly earnings of women were about 17% less than those of men, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Black women and men earned around 30% less than white men.

These pay gaps can also add up quickly and compound over time. One estimate calculated a woman’s lifetime loss at $900,000 over the span of a 40-year career, according to the most recent report by Payscale, a compensation software and data company.

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