The Indian government, however, has said that both urban and rural unemployment rates have declined in the quarter ending June 2022.

Explaining this variance, Santosh Mehrotra, a labor economist and former professor at New Delhi’s Jawaharlal Nehru University, told The Financial Express that the CMIE, unlike the government, doesn’t define unpaid family labor as employment at all.

“The point is that unpaid family labor rising at a time when the economy has slowed, is simply a sign of distress, both rural and urban,” Mehrotra said.

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