With the global movie audience outside of the US growing, Marvel—as well as other Hollywood powerhouses—have started to produce more features that center on non-white characters. (Marvel is also expanding the universe in its comics, adding its first batch of Chinese superheroes last year.) In 2018, the studio’s Black Panther, which featured an almost all-black cast, grossed $1.3 billion globally.

Yet despite some huge successes, studios still find themselves struggling to appeal to audiences in different countries with movies released worldwide. The American romantic comedy Crazy Rich Asians, celebrated in the US  as a model for inclusiveness and representation of Asian Americans, was widely viewed in China and elsewhere in Asia as promoting outdated caricatures. It was a flop in China.

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