Netherlands Space Office

Netherlands Space Office.
Image: Screemgrab/Netherlands Space Office

On the relay satellite, Scientists from Netherland’s Radboud University led the design for a radio antenna, which traveled with the Queqiao earlier. Scientists are hoping that the antenna will pick up signals that can reveal the clues of the universe’s origins, which are hard to catch on earth due to interference.

German Aerospace Center (DLR)

The German Aerospace Center.
Image: Screengrab

Its logo looks a little like two rectangles crossing each other–or wings—possibly to represent flight. German scientists at the University of Kiel helped develop the Lunar Lander Neutrons and Dosimetry, which will measure the moon’s radiation levels, among other experiments, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, director of the Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics at the University of Kiel, told Quartz the collaboration came about after a 2015 workshop organized by German aerospace firm OHB. “Our idea was seen favorably by the Chinese selection committee, and we were selected to build a radiation monitor, LND, in January 2016,” said Wimmer-Schweingruber.

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Image: Screengrab

Saudi Arabia’s scientists built photographic instruments to film and photograph the moon, which are on board a small satellite that launched at the same time as the relay satellite.

Apart from the nations mentioned above, Chang’e-4 is also equipped with a Swedish-made detector, the Advanced Small Analyzer for Neutrals, which can investigate how solar wind interacts with the lunar surface, according to Dr. Martin Wieser from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, which developed the detector. (It’s not possible to tell if the institute’s symbol is on the rocket, judging from the picture posted by state media.)

After Chang’e-4, China has more ambitious plans for moon exploration—as the Chang’e program’s own logo hints.

The logo’s overall shape seems to reference “月,” the contemporary Chinese character for moon, and also resembles a crescent moon, noted Andrew Jones, who writes about China’s space program for news site GBTimes and others.

The top of the curving stroke is a dragon’s head, to symbolize that China’s aerospace development is “taking off like a giant dragon,” according to the government’s interpretation (link in Chinese) in 2006, when the logo was selected among more than 1,000 designs the government crowdsourced from the country. The bottom of the pattern is a flock of doves to represent “our good wishes for the peaceful use of space.”

The grey marks within the curve are footprints, which represent China’s “ultimate dream” of being the second country to put its people on the moon.

📬 Sign up for the Daily Brief

Our free, fast, and fun briefing on the global economy, delivered every weekday morning.