2013 will be remembered as the year that deadly, suffocating smog consumed China

This wasn’t the first year that smog blackened Chinese cities with appalling frequency, closed airports and roads, and sent children to hospitals with pollution-filled lungs. Though labored breathing and chronic hacking have long been a fact of life for most Chinese people, something in the awareness of the problem shifted this year—2013 will be remembered as the year that China’s struggle with air pollution went mainstream.

On the first day of the year, the Chinese government began publishing the air quality index (AQI), which measures fine particulate matter (PM2.5) per cubic meter, in real-time in 74 cities throughout the country. That made the worsening pollution quantifiable—and undeniable.

This chart shows the daily average AQI as measured by the US embassy and consulates, not by the Chinese government.​

Shortly thereafter, Beijing and surrounding regions were hit by pollution of “unimaginable levels,” as journalist James Fallows put it. At one point in mid-January, AQI in Beijing soared as high as 993, far beyond levels health officials deem extremely dangerous. (Here’s the health impact based on AQI, for reference.) For comparison, on the same day in New York, the AQI was 19.

Beijing’s “airpocalypse” attracted global media attention and sparked outrage among the Chinese public. And it was just the start. Here are other ways that 2013 changed how China confronted its air pollution crisis:

Organizing life around PM2.5 went mainstream

Throughout the year, PM2.5 was so consistently high that the measurement “entered into mainstream Chinese life,” as Angela Hsu, a doctoral candidate at Yale University, told the Guardian. Hsu’s research of Chinese social media site Sina Weibo found that the term “PM 2.5” went from 200 mentions in January 2011 to 3 million in January 2013. It became fashionable for Sina Weibo users to share photos of themselves protecting their lungs:

Photo links:
The face mask became a part of many wardrobes as the pollution worsened. (Weibo / u/2562495864; u/3058002090; u/malili1989; u/dollice)

But foiling PM2.5 was more than just a meme; it was also part of the calculus that people living in China face each day. The New York Times’ Didi Kirsten Tatlow, who lives in Beijing, shared rules for the activities she allows her children to participate in based on air quality. “[A]bove 100, and the air purifiers—all four of them—go on. Above 200, we wear face masks outdoors. Above 300 and no one exercises or plays outside, even with a face mask on. Above 500 and we try not to go out at all,” she explained. And it wasn’t just Tatlow; the share prices of Chinese makers of air purifiers surged in January along with pollution levels.

Air pollution caused medical emergencies

At one point in January, Beijing Children’s Hospital was treating more than 7,000 patients a day, a five-year high for children with respiratory ailments. Chinese researchers later reported that the Winter 2013 smog crisis affected 800 million people over a span of 1.4 million square kilometers (540,000 square miles). When a severe spate of toxic air hit Harbin, a northern city, in October, hospital admissions surged by 30%. During the same month, an 8-year-old girl in Jiangsu became China’s youngest lung cancer patient, a condition blamed on pollution.

A baby with respiratory disease undergoes inhalation therapy with help of his grandmother on a foggy day at a hospital specialized for children in Beijing, January 28, 2013. China issued a blue-coded alert on Sunday as foggy weather forecast for the coming two days will cut visibility and worsen air pollution in some central and eastern Chinese cities, Xinhua News Agency reported.
A baby receives inhalation therapy in Beijing on January 28, 2013. (REUTERS/China Daily)

New studies quantified the damage air pollution wrought on Chinese lives. Smog in China shaved a total of 2.5 billion years off the lives of 500 million people in the 1990s, and pollution may have caused 1.2 million premature deaths in 2010. Perhaps the most appalling facts, though, concerned how air pollution was affecting children. Greenpeace found that in 2011 coal plants killed 9,900 people in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, including 40 babies in the capital.

Children with respiratory diseases receive treatment at a hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province December 9, 2013. Patients with respiratory diseases have largely increased after days of smoggy weather in the city, according to local media. A coal-dependent manufacturing base has made China the world's biggest contributor to climate change, while high and rising local air-pollution levels have sparked widespread complains from the public nationwide.
Children with respiratory diseases receive treatment at a hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province on December 9, 2013. (REUTERS/China Daily)

Buildings disappeared—and photo evidence traveled around the world

Countless photos captured the haunting cityscapes. Even a 1,000-foot skyscraper had trouble sticking out in the Beijing smog, as you can see in this picture snapped by Sinocism’s Bill Bishop:

On the left, a photo of the China World Trade Center Tower III on February 26, 2013. On the right, the same swath of skyline, photographed the next day. (Bill Bishop / Sinocism)
The financial district of Pudong is seen on a hazy day in Shanghai January 21, 2013. Beijing is to unveil unprecedented new rules governing how China's capital reacts to hazardous air pollution, the official Xinhua news agency said, as deteriorating air quality threatens to become a rallying point for wider political dissatisfaction.
The financial district of Pudong is seen on a hazy day in Shanghai on January 21, 2013. (REUTERS/Aly Song)
A residential compound is seen during a smoggy day in Wujiaqu, Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region, November 19, 2013. Picture taken November 19, 2013.
A residential compound is seen during a smoggy day in Wujiaqu, Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region on November 19, 2013. (REUTERS/Stringer)

Chinese people tried everything to fight the pollution

Some enterprising Chinese people responded to the noxious air conditions with their own inventions.

Artist Matt Hope, wearing a helmet, pushes his air filtration bike out from his studio on a hazy day in Beijing, March 26, 2013. Using an IKEA perforated garbage can, moped helmet, fighter-pilot breathing mask, wheel-powered generator and home air filtration system, Beijing-based artist Matt Hope built a "breathing bicycle" as a way of protecting himself from air pollution. While pedalling, electricity is generated for the power to activate the system to filter out haze and provide the rider with clean air, local media reported. According to the U.S. embassy monitor, the air quality today is classified as "very unhealthy". REUTERS/Petar Kujundzic
Artist Matt Hope, wearing a helmet, pushes his air filtration bike out from his studio on a hazy day in Beijing on March 26, 2013. (REUTERS/Petar Kujundzic)
Yes, those are cans of air.
Cans of fresh air are seen piled up before being given away by Chinese multimillionaire Chen Guangbiao, near a street on a hazy day in central Beijing, January 30, 2013. China's foulest fortnight for air pollution in memory has rekindled a tongue-in-cheek campaign by a Chinese multimillionaire with a streak of showmanship who is raising the alarm by selling canned fresh air. Chen Guangbiao, who made his fortune in the recycling business and is a high-profile philanthropist, on Wednesday handed out soda pop-sized cans of air, purportedly from far-flung and pristine regions of China, from Xinjiang in the far northwest to Taiwan off China's southeast coast.
An entrepreneur gave out cans of air in an anti-pollution stunt. (REUTERS/Barry Huang)

And anti-haze martial arts were supposed to strengthen the lungs of schoolchildren.

Pupils practice a set of martial arts "smog preventing" exercises in a classroom at a primary school in Shijiazhuang, Hebei province December 11, 2013. The school invented the set of exercises, which consists of 23 different martial arts moves, claiming it can improve physical conditions of the students and reduce the harm of smog. Air quality in cities is of increasing concern to China's stability-obsessed leaders, anxious to douse potential unrest as a more affluent urban population turns against a growth-at-all-costs economic model that has poisoned much of the country's air, water and soil. Picture taken December 11, 2013. REUTERS/Stringer
Chinese students use physical fitness to protect themselves. (Reuters)

It wasn’t just the locals, though. The International School of Beijing built a $5.7 million dome for their athletic field to ensure healthy breathing.

Apple, JPMorgan and Honda all gave their Beijing employees face masks. And when the LPGA came to Beijing, the world’s top female golfers did as the Beijingers do.

Germany's Sandra Gal, wearing a mask, tees off on the forth hole on a hazy day during the final round of the Reignwood LPGA Classic golf tournament at Pine Valley Golf Club on the outskirts of Beijing, China, Sunday, Oct. 6, 2013.
​Golfers practicing for a tournament in Beijing wore masks to guard against the air pollution. (AP Photo / Alexander F. Yuan)

Air pollution’s economic toll became more obvious

In the past, the World Bank has projected that China loses 4.3% of GDP to health costs associated with air and water pollution. But that’s always been abstract. This year, China’s economy took a hit on numerous fronts due to air pollution. Tourism, for instance, has begun to suffer, as Beijing saw a 15% decline in overseas visitors in the first half of the year.
Tourists walk along the Great Wall on a hazy day in Juyongguan, as the opening day of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games approaches, August 4, 2008. REUTERS/Stefano Rellandini
Tourists climb the Great Wall on a hazy day. (Reuters/Stefano Rellandini)

In October, a blinding layer of pollution—so bad “you can’t see your fingers in front of you”—forced the city of Harbin to close schools, roads, and the airport, and its 11 million residents were told to stay home.

A traffic policeman signals to drivers during a smoggy day in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, October 21, 2013. The second day of heavy smog with a PM 2.5 index has forced the closure of schools and highways, exceeding 500 micrograms per cubic meter on Monday morning in downtown Harbin, according to Xinhua News Agency.
​A cop braves Harbin’s October smog. (Reuters/China Daily)

Pollution caused hundreds of flight cancellations around the country. The aviation regulator instituted new rules requiring senior pilots on flights into and out of Beijing to be able to land in low visibility.

An aircraft parks in heavy haze at Beijing airport, January 28, 2013. Beijing's air pollution returns to 'hazardous' levels, two weeks after record readings of small particles in the air sparks a public outcry.
An aircraft parks in heavy haze at Beijing airport on January 28, 2013. (REUTERS/Jason Lee)

The government finally decided to do something about the smog

During Chinese New Years, Beijing encouraged residents to lay off the holiday tradition of launching fireworks, causing a 37% drop in fireworks sales from the previous year. The government also made the questionable move of cracking down on Beijing’s outdoor barbecues.

But the government finally made a move to address the real culprit. The government announced in September a 1.7 trillion yuan ($277 billion) plan to reduce the smog by cutting the use of coal and decreasing emissions from cars, with Beijing aiming to lower PM2.5 levels by 25% by 2017.

A statue of China's late Chairman Mao Zedong is seen in front of buildings during a hazy day in Shenyang, Liaoning province, May 7, 2013. REUTERS/Stringer
A statue of China’s late Chairman Mao Zedong is seen in front of buildings during a hazy day in Shenyang, Liaoning province, on May 7, 2013. (REUTERS/Stringer)
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