The new numbers were collected in mid-June, before the recent surges in virus cases and, in some states, the resulting sudden shutdowns of restaurants and retail stores that were slowly re-opening across the US.

Workers on temporary layoff were already in a precarious state, and now there’s the risk that recalled workers could be laid off again, which is already happening in some parts of the country.

One study estimates that 42% of the recent US layoffs, including furloughs, will result in permanent job losses due to reduced demand and concerns about further transmission of Covid-19.

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