The UK recorded a big jump in the number of people with unfavorable views of China, too, leaping to three-quarters from just over 50% last year. The British government has been vocal in its support of Hong Kong’s protest movement, including offering a pathway to citizenship for 3 million Hong Kongers who are eligible a British National Overseas passport. The UK has also become a base for Hong Kong’s activists, much to the chagrin of Beijing.

And in the US, negative views of China have also climbed steadily, increasing by nearly 30 percentage points since president Donald Trump took office. As in the UK, some nearly three-quarters of Americans now view China negatively. That is slightly less than the nine in 10 Americans who see China as a threat, according another Pew study published earlier this year.

There’s one country where the Covid-19 pandemic hasn’t caused a major spike in negative sentiment towards China, however: Japan.

But that’s only because Japan has long harbored an intense dislike of its neighbor thanks to a centuries-long history of war and tension between the two. Nevertheless, Japan’s economy is also closely entwined with China’s, which means it has a balancing act to play as it hosts the four-nation Quad meeting of foreign ministers from the US, Australia, and India, who hope to use the forum to craft a united front against China.

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